Posted by Gregory Maassen on September 5, 2022 - Latest revision September 5, 2022  Reading time: minutes remaining

Academic E-bike Research – Literature List

The National Park Service (NPS) has been at the forefront of the e-bike debate in the United States by permitting these modern marvels of micro-mobility on trails in national parks where regular, "analog" bike use is allowed.

To implement NPS' electric bicycle (e-bike) regulation of December 2020, a comprehensive literature review was conducted to assist superintendents with management decisions related to e-bikes. The park service has produced a detailed literature overview of nearly 60 e-bike studies.

This is the list of literature used in the study.

E-bike Studies

Topic

Author

Source

Publication

Year

Title

Accessibility

Gerow, B.

Singletracks

2020

E-bikes are Important Forest Accessibility Tools.

Accessibility

Gordon, E., Shao, Z., Xing, Y., & Wang, Y.

TRB 2013 Annual Meeting

2012

Experiences of Electric Bicycle Users in the Davis/Sacramento, California Area.

Accessibility

Jeljis, B., Heutink, J., de Waard, D., Brookhuis, K., & Melis-Dankers, B.

Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour

2020

How visually impaired cyclists ride regular and pedal electric bicycles.

Accessibility

Leger, S., Dean, J., Edge, S., & Casello, J.

Transportation Research Part A

2019

If I had a regular bicycle, I wouldn’t be out riding anymore.

Accessibility

MacArthur, J., McNeil, N., Cummings, A., & Broach, J.

Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

2020

Adaptive Bike Share: Expanding Bike Share to People with Disabilities and Older Adults.

Accessibility

Ruvolo, M.

UCLA Institute of Transportation Studies

2020

Access Denied? Perceptions of New Mobility Services Among Disabled People in San Francisco.

Accessibility; Health and Wellness

Leyland, L., Spencer, B., Beale, N., Jones, T., & van Reekum, C.

PLoS ONE

2019

The effect of cycling on cognitive function and well-being in older adults.

Accessibility; Safety; User Conflict

MacArthur, J., Harpool, M. Scheppke, D., & Cherry, C.

Portland State University Transportation Research and Education Center

2017

A North American Survey of Electric Bicycle Owners.

Environment and Natural Resources

Abagnale, C., Cardone, M., Iodice, P., Strano, S., Terso, M., & Vorraro, G.

Energy Procedia

2015

A Dynamic Model for the Performance and Environmental Analysis of an Innovative e-bike.

Environment and Natural Resources

Chavez, D., Winter, P., & Bass, J.

Journal of Parks and Recreation Administration

1993

Recreational Mountain Biking: A Management Perspective.

Environment and Natural Resources

Cushman, H., Cooper, M., Meentemeyer, R., & Benson, S.

USFS

2008

Human activity and the spread of Phytophthora ramorum.

Environment and Natural Resources

Elliott, T., McLaren, S., & Sims, R.

Sustainable Production and Consumption

2018

Potential environmental impacts of electric bicycles replacing other transport modes in Wellington, New Zealand.

Environment and Natural Resources

Hall, C., Ho, T., Julian, C., Whight, G., Chaney, R., Crookston, B., & West, J.

JMIR

2019

Pedal-Assist Mountain Bikes: A Pilot Study Comparison of the Exercise Response, Perceptions, and Beliefs of Experienced Mountain Bikers.

Environment and Natural Resources

Hedquist, S.L., Ellison, L.A., & Laurenzi, A.

Advances in Archaeological Practice

2014

Public Lands and Cultural Resource Protection: A Case Study of Unauthorized Damage to Archaeological Sites on the Tonto National Forest, Arizona.

Environment and Natural Resources

Herrero J. & Herrero, S.

Parks Canada

2000

Management Options for the Moraine Lake Highline Trail: Grizzly Bears and Cyclists.

Environment and Natural Resources

Honkonen, K.

U.S. Forest Service

2021

Hale Lake Area Management Project.

Environment and Natural Resources

International Mountain Bicycling Association

International Mountain Bicycling Association

2016

A Comparison of Environmental Impacts from Mountain Bicycles, Class 1 Electric Mountain Bicycles, and Motorcycles: Soil Displacement and Erosion on Bike-Optimized Trails in a Western Oregon Forest.

Environment and Natural Resources

International Mountain Bicycling Association

International Mountain Bicycling Association

2016

Trail Use and Management of Electric Mountain Bikes: Land Manager Survey Results.

Environment and Natural Resources

Jefferson County Colorado Open Space

Jefferson County Colorado Open Space

2017

Jefferson County Colorado E-bikes and Trails: Measuring Impact and Acceptance of Class 1 E-bikes on Trails.

Environment and Natural Resources

Ji, S., Cherry, C., Bechle, M., Wu, Y., & Marshall, J.

Environmental Science and Technology

2011

Electric vehicles in China: emissions and health impacts.

Environment and Natural Resources

Kantor, S., Wisdom, M., & Johnson, B.

US Department of Agriculture

2019

Seeking ground less traveled: Elk responses to recreation.

Environment and Natural Resources

Larson, C. L., Reed, S. E., Merenlender, A. M., & Crooks, K.R.

PLOS ONE

2016

Effects of Recreation on Animals Revealed as Widespread through a Global Systematic Review.

Environment and Natural Resources

Larson, C.L., Reed, S.E., Merenlender, A.M., & Crooks, K.R.

Conservation Science and Practice

2019

A meta-analysis of recreation effects on vertebrate species richness and abundance.

Environment and Natural Resources

Legagneux, P. & Ducatez, S.

Biology Letters

2013

European birds adjust their flight initiation distance to road speed limits.

Environment and Natural Resources

Li, T., Qian, F., & Su, C.

Applied Mechanics and Materials

2014

Energy consumption and emission of pollutants from electric bicycles.

Environment and Natural Resources

Liu, X., Ren, D., Hsu, H., Feng, X., Xu, G., Zhuang, M., Gao, H., Lu, L., Han, X., Chu., Z., Li, J., He, X., Amine, K., & Ouyang, M.

Joule

2018

Thermal Runaway of Lithium-Ion Batteries without Internal Short Circuit.

Environment and Natural Resources

Lyon, L. Jack, & Burcham, M.G

U.S. Forest Service

1998

Tracking Elk Hunters with the Global Positioning System.

Environment and Natural Resources

Lyon, L. Jack, and Burcham, M.G.

USFS

1998

Tracking Elk Hunters with the Global Positioning System.

Environment and Natural Resources

MacArthur, J., McQueen, M., & Cherry, M.

Portland State University Transportation Research and Education Center

2019

The E-Bike Potential: Addressing Our Climate Crisis by Incentivizing Active Transportation.

Environment and Natural Resources

Machedon-Pisu, M. & Borza, P.

Energy Procedia

2020

Are Personal Electric Vehicles Sustainable? A Hybrid E-Bike Case Study

Environment and Natural Resources

Marion, J. & Wimpey, J.

MTB Environmental Impact Study

2017

Environmental Impacts of Mountain Biking: Science Review and Best Practices.

Environment and Natural Resources

McCarran, T. & Carpenter, N.

Efficiency Vermont

2018

Electric bikes: survey and energy efficiency analysis.

Environment and Natural Resources

McQueen, M. & MacArthur, J.

TREC/Portland State University

2020

Can Incentivizing E-bikes Support GHG Goals? Launching the New EV Incentive Cost and Impact. Tool.

Environment and Natural Resources

Mellino, S., Petrillo, A., Cigolotti, V., Autorino, C., Jannelli, E., & Ulgiati, S.

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

2017

A Life Cycle Assessment of lithium battery and hydrogen-FC powered electric bicycles: Searching for cleaner solutions to urban mobility


Environment and Natural Resources

Naylor, L.M., Wisdom, M.J., & Anthony, R.G.

Journal of Wildlife Management

2009

Behavioral Responses of North American Elk to Recreational Activity.

Environment and Natural Resources

Newsome, D. & Davies, L.

Journal of Ecotourism

2009

A case study in estimating the area of informal trail development and associated impacts caused by mountain bike activity in John Forrest National Park, Western Australia. 

Environment and Natural Resources

Nielson, T., Palmatier, S.M., Proffitt, A., & Marotti, M.

Boulder County Parks & Open Space

2019

Boulder County E-bike Pilot Study Results.

Environment and Natural Resources

Phillips, G. & Alldredge, A.

Journal of Wildlife Management

2000

Reproductive success of elk following disturbance by humans during calving season.

Environment and Natural Resources

Pickering, C.M., Hill, W., Newsome, D., & Leung, Y.

Journal of Environmental Management

2009

Comparing hiking, mountain biking and horse riding impacts on vegetation and soils in Australia and the United States of America.

Environment and Natural Resources

Proffitt, K.M., Gude, J.A., Hamlin, K.L., & Messer, M.A.

Journal of Wildlife Management

2013

Effects of hunter access and habitat security on elk habitat selection in landscapes with a public and private land matrix.

Environment and Natural Resources

Quigley, T.M. & Bigler Cole, H.

US Forest Service

1997

The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: scientific assessment.

Environment and Natural Resources

Quinn, M. & Chernoff, G.

Miistakis Institute

2010

Mountain Biking: A Review of the Ecological Effects.

Environment and Natural Resources

Robinson, C., Dunker, P.N., & Beazley, K.F.

Environmental Reviews

2010

Science and Policy Brief, Habitat Fragmentation from Roads: Travel Planning Methods to Safeguard Bureau of Land Management Lands.

Environment and Natural Resources

Rowland, M.M., Wisdom, M.J., Johnson, B.K., & Kie, J.G.

Journal of Wildlife Management

2000

Elk Distribution and Modeling in Relation to Roads.

Environment and Natural Resources

Schmor, M.R.

University of Calgary

1999

An exploration into bear deterrents, as related to mountain biking, and the design of an ultrasonic bear warning device.

Environment and Natural Resources

Stokowski, P.A. & LaPointe, C.B.

University of Vermont School of Natural Resources

2000

Environmental and Social Effects of ATVs and ORVs: An Annotated Bibliography and Research Assessment.

Environment and Natural Resources

Switalski, A.

Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism

2018

Off-highway vehicle recreation in drylands: A literature review and recommendations for best management practices.

Environment and Natural Resources

Switalski, A.

Winter Wildlands Alliance

2014

Snowmobile Best Management Practices for Forest Service Travel Planning: A Comprehensive Literature Review and Recommendations for Management.

Environment and Natural Resources

Switalski, A. & Jones, A.

Journal of Conservation Planning

2012

Off-road vehicle best management practices for forestlands: A review of scientific literature and guidance for managers. 

Environment and Natural Resources

Switalski, T.A. & Jones, A.

Journal of Conservation Planning

2012

Off-road vehicle best management practices for forestlands: A review of scientific literature and guidance for managers.

Environment and Natural Resources

Taylor, A.R. & Knight R.L.

Ecological Applications

2003

Wildlife responses to recreation and associated visitor perception.

Environment and Natural Resources

Thurston, E., & Reader, R. J.

Environmental Management

2001

Impacts of experimentally applied mountain biking and hiking on vegetation and soil of a deciduous forest.

Environment and Natural Resources

Trombulak, S.C. & Frissell, C.A.

Conservation Biology

2001

Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities.

Environment and Natural Resources

U.S. Forest Service

U.S. Forest Service

2011

Trail Fundamentals and Trail Management Objectives.

Environment and Natural Resources

Uteng, T. P., Uteng, A., & Kittilsen, O. J.

Norwegian Centre for Transport Research

2019

Land use development potential and E-bike analysis.

Environment and Natural Resources

Vandeman, M.J.

ARPN Journal of Science and Technology

2014

The Impacts of Mountain Biking on Wildlife and People A Review of the Literature.

Environment and Natural Resources

Weiss, M., Dekker, P., Moro, A., Scholz, H., & Patel, M. K.

Transportation Research: Part D

2015

On the electrification of road transportation – A review of the environmental, economic, and social performance of electric two-wheelers.

Environment and Natural Resources

WildEarth Guardians

WildEarth Guardians

2020

The Environmental Consequences of Forest Roads and Achieving a Sustainable Road System.

Environment and Natural Resources

Wisdom, M., Holthausen, R.S., Wales, B.C., Hargis, C.D., Saab, V.A., Lee, D.C., Hann, W.J., Rich, T.D., Rowland, M.M., Murphy, W.J., & Eames, M.R.

US Department of Agriculture

2000

Source habitats for terrestrial vertebrates of focus in the interior Columbia basin: broadscale trends and management implications, Volume 1. 

Environment and Natural Resources

Wisdom, M., Preisler, H.K., Naylor, L.M., Anthony, R.G., Johnson, B.K., & Rowland, M.M

Forest Ecology and Management

2018

Elk responses to trail-based recreation on public forests.

Environment and Natural Resources

Wisdom, M.J., Ager, A.A., Preisler, H.K., Cimon, N.J., & Johnson, B.K.

Transactions of the 69th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference

2004

Effects of off-road recreation on mule deer and elk.

Environment and Natural Resources

Woodcock, J., Abbas, A., Ullrich, A., Tainio, M., Lovelace, R., Sa, T., Westgate, K., & Goodman, A.

TREC/Portland State University

2018

Development of the Impacts of Cycling Tool (ICT).

Environment and Natural Resources

Xu, Z., Liu, Z., & Sun, S.

10th Asia Pacific Transportation Development Conference

2014

Analysis of Impacts on Environment from Electric Bicycles: A Case Study of Xi'an, China.

Environment and Natural Resources; Safety; User Conflict

Nielson, T., Palmatier, S. M., & Proffitt, A.

Boulder County Parks & Open Space

2019

Literature Review: Recreation Conflicts on Emerging E-bike Technology

Equity

Alamelu, R., Anushan, C. S., & Selvabaskar, S. G.

Business: Theory & Practice

2015

Preference of E-Bike by Women in India-a Niche Market for Auto Manufacturers.

Equity

Clelow, R.

Populus

2018

DC is growing its dockless bike and scooter program: We partnered with them to evaluate how it’s expanding access in underserved communities. 

Equity

Dill, J. & Rose, G.

TRB

2012

E-Bikes and Transportation Policy: Insights from Early Adopters.

Equity

Fyhri, A., Johansson, O., & Bjornskau, T.

Accident Analysis & Prevention

2019

Gender Differences in Accident Risk with E-Bikes – Survey Data from Norway.

Equity

Lee, D.

City University of New York Academic Works.

2018

Delivering Justice: Food Delivery Cyclists in New York City.

Equity

Stowell, H.

Institute of Transportation Engineers

2020

Making Micro-mobility Equitable for All.



ABOUT THE STUDY


To implement NPS' electric bicycle (e-bike) regulation of December 2020, a comprehensive literature review was conducted to assist superintendents with management decisions related to e-bikes.


Download the NPS study here.

Click here for an overview of the study.

Equity

Yanocha, D. & Allan, M.

Institute for Transportation and Development Policy

2019

The Electric Assist: Leveraging E-bikes and E-scooters for more Livable Cities.

General

Banks, N.

Forbes

2018

Looking for the Ultimate Urban Toy? Introducing SWIND EB-01.

General

Bureau of Land Management

Bureau of Land Management

2014

2020 Travel and Transportation Management Vision.

General

Council on Environmental Quality

Council on Environmental Quality

1979

CEQ Off-road vehicles on public land.

General

Havlick, D.

Island Press

2002

No Place Distant: Roads and Motorized Recreation on America's Public Lands.

General

MacArthur, J. & Kobel, N.

National Institute for Transportation and Communities

2014

Regulations of E-Bikes in North America.

General

McQueen, M., MacArthur, J., & Cherry, C.

Transportation Research and Education Center

2019

How E-bike Incentive Programs are Used to Expand the Market.

General

Mimiaga, J.

Durango Herald

2019

E-bikes tested on Phil’s World ATV trails.

General

National Conference of State Legislatures

National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL)

2019

State Electric Bicycle Laws: A Legislative Primer.

General

Road Bike

Road Bike

n.d.

Average Cycling Speed for New and Experienced Cyclists

General

Switalski, A.

Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism

2018

Off-highway vehicle recreation in drylands: A literature review and recommendations for best management practices.

General

Transportation Research and Education Center

Transportation Research and Education Center

2017

PFB state by state summary ebike bills.

General

US GAO

US GAO

2009

FEDERAL LANDS Enhanced Planning Could Assist Agencies in Managing Increased Use of Off-Highway Vehicles.

Health and Wellness

Alessio, H., Reiman, T., Kemper, B., von Carlowitz, W., Bailer, J., & Timmerman, K.

Translational Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine

2021

Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses to a Simulated Commute on an E-Bike.

Health and Wellness

Bourne, J., Page, A., Leary, S., Andrews, R., England, C., & Cooper., A.

BMC Pilot and Feasibility Studies

2019

Electrically assisted cycling for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Health and Wellness

Bourne, J., Sauchelli, S., Perry, R., Page, A., Leary, S., England, C., & Cooper, A.

International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity

2018

Health benefits of electrically-assisted cycling: a systematic review.

Health and Wellness

Castro, A., Gaupp-Berghausen, M., Dons, E., Standaert, A., Laeremans, M., Clark, A., Anaya-Boig, E., Cole-Hunter, T., Avila-Palencia, I., Rojas-Rueda, D., Nieuwenhuijsen, M., Gerike, R., Panis, L.I., de Nazelle, A., Brand, C., Raser, E., Kahlmeier, S., Götschi, T., & PASTA Consortium

Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives

2019

Physical activity of electronic bicycle users compared to conventional bicycle users and non-cyclists: Insights  based on health and transport data from an online survey in seven European cities.

Health and Wellness

De Geus, D. & Hendriksen, I.

Cycling Futures: From Research into Practice.

2015

Cycling for transport, physical activity and health: what about Pedelecs?

Health and Wellness

Duarte, G., Mendes, M., & Baptista, P.

INSTICC Press INSTICC INSTICC

2014

Influence of Electric Bicycle Usage on Biker Effort On-road Monitoring Application in Lisbon, Portugal.

Health and Wellness

Fishman, E. & Cherry, C.

Transport Reviews

2015

E-bikes in the Mainstream: Reviewing a Decade of Research.

Health and Wellness

Jones, T., Harms, L., & Heinen, E.

Journal of Transport Geography

2016

Motives, perceptions and experiences of electric bicycle owners and implications for health, wellbeing and mobility.

Health and Wellness

Kruijf, J., Ettema, D., & Dijst, M.

American Society of Civil Engineers Beijing Univ. Technol. Beijing Univ. Technol.

2018

A longitudinal evaluation of satisfaction with e-cycling in daily commuting in the Netherlands.

Health and Wellness

Langford, B., Cherry, C., Bassett, D., Fitzhugh, E., & Dhakal, N.

Journal of Transport and Health

2017

Comparing physical activity of pedal-assist electric bikes with walking and conventional bicycles.

Health and Wellness

Langford, B., Cherry, C., Bassett, D., Fitzhugh, E., & Nirbesh, D.

Journal of Transport & Health

2017

Comparing physical activity of pedal-assist electric bikes with walking and conventional bicycles.

Health and Wellness

MacArthur, J., Dill, J., & Person, M.

Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium

2014

Electric Bikes in North America: Results of an Online Survey

Health and Wellness

Meyer, D., Steffan, M., & Senner, V.

Procedia Engineering

2014

Impact of Electrical Assistance on Physiological Parameters During Cycling.

Health and Wellness

Sudfor, H., Fyhri, A.

BMC Public Health

2017

A push for public health: the effect of e-bikes on physical activity levels.

Health and Wellness

Van Cauwenberg, J., de Bourdeaudhuij, I., Clarys, P., & de Geus, B.

Transportation

2018

E-bikes among older adults: benefits, disadvantages, usage and crash characteristics.

Safety

Adair, P., Ayers, S., Bathalon, S., Edwards, P., Lee, D., LaRue, D., McCallion, R., Khanna, R., & Thomas, T.

US Consumer Product Safety Commission

2020

Safety Concerns Associated with Micro-mobility Products.

Safety

Baschera, D., Jäger, D., Preda, R., & Z'Graggen, W.

World Neurosurgery

2019

Comparison of the incidence and severity of traumatic brain injury caused by E-bike and bicycle accidents – Retrospective cohort study from a Swiss level I trauma center.

Safety

Cherry, C., MacArthur, J.

People for Bikes

2019

E-Bike Safety: A Review of Empirical European and North American Studies.

Safety

Clark, A.

Journal of Transport & Health

2017

New Types of Electric Pedal-Assisted Cycles (EPACs) As a Form of Active Mobility.

Safety

Dawson, A.

Bicycling.com

2019

E-Bike Battery Explodes, Burning 79-Year-Old Cyclist and Causing Bushfire.

Safety

DiMaggio, C., Bukur, M., Wall, S., Frangos, S., & Wen, A.

BMJ Injury Prevention

2019

Injuries associated with electric-powered bikes and scooters: analysis of US consumer product data.

Safety

Dozza, M.

Proceedings, International Cycling Safety Conference

2013

e‐BikeSAFE: A Naturalistic Cycling Study to Understand how Electrical Bicycles Change Cycling Behaviour and Influence Safety.

Safety

Dozza, M., Piccinini, G., & Werneke, J.

Transportation Research: Part F

2016

Using naturalistic data to assess e-cyclist behavior.

Safety

Eriksson, J., Forsman, Forsman, Å., Niska, A., Gustafsson, S., & Sörensen, G.

Traffic Injury Prevention

2019

An analysis of cyclists' speed at combined pedestrian and cycle path.

Safety

Gogola, M.

IEEE

2018

Are the e-bikes more dangerous than traditional bicycles?

Safety

Hertach, P., Uhr, A., Niemann, S., & Cavegn, M.

Accident Analysis & Prevention

2018

Characteristics of single-vehicle crashes with e-bikes in Switzerland.

Safety

Hu, F., Lv, D., Zhu, J., & Fang, J.

Traffic Injury Prevention

2014

Related Risk Factors for Injury Severity of E-bike and Bicycle Crashes in Hefei.

Safety

Hu, L., Hu, X., Kuang, A., Hao, W., & Lin, M.

Applied Mechanics and Materials

2020

Casualty risk of e-bike rider struck by passenger vehicle using China in-depth accident data.

Safety

Huertas-Levya, P., Dozza, M., & Baldanzini, N.

Transportation Research: Part F

2018

Investigating cycling kinematics and braking maneuvers in the real world.

Safety

Langford, B.

Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange

2013

A comparative health and safety analysis of electric-assist and regular bicycles in an on-campus bicycle sharing system.

Safety

Langford, B.C., Chen, J., & Cherry, C.

Accident Analysis & Prevention

2015

Risky riding.

Safety

Ma, C., Zhou, J., Yang, D., & Fan, Y.

Sustainability (2071-1050)

2020

Research on the Relationship between the Individual Characteristics of Electric Bike Riders and Illegal speeding Behavior.

Safety

Ma, C., Zhou, J., Yang, D., & Fan, Y.

MDPI

2020

Research on the Relationship between the Individual Characteristics of Electric Bike Riders and Illegal Speeding Behavior: A Questionnaire-Based Study

Safety

N/A

Royal Automobile Club of Victoria

2015

Safety implications of e-bikes.

Safety

People for Bikes

People for Bikes.

2018

Colorado’s E-Bike Law.

Safety

Petzoldt, T., Schleinitz, K., Heilmann, S., & Gehlert, T.

Transportation Research Part F

2017

Traffic conflicts and their contextual factors when riding conventional vs. electric bicycles.

Safety

Pohl, J.

AZCentral.com

2018

'Personal drone' sparks 335-acre wildfire north of Flagstaff.

Safety

Schepers, J. P., Fishman, E., den Hertog, P., Wolt, K. K., & Schwab, A. L

Accident Analysis & Prevention

2014

The safety of electrically assisted bicycles compared to classic bicycles.

Safety

Schepers, P., Wolt, K.K., & Fishman, E.

International Transport Forum

2018

The Safety of e-bikes in the Netherlands.

Safety

Schleinitz, K., Petzoldt, T., Franke-Bartholdt, L, Krems, J., & Gehlert, T.

Safety Science

2017

The German Naturalistic Cycling Study – Comparing cycling speed of riders of different e-bikes and conventional bicycles.

Safety

Vlakveld, W.P., Twisk, D., Christoph, M., Boele, M., Sikkema, R., Remy, R., & Schwab, A.L.

Accident Prevention and Analysis

2015

Speed choin e-bikes in simple and complex traffic situations: A field experiment.

Safety

Weber, T., Scaramuzza, G., & Schmitt, K.-U.

Accident Analysis and Prevention

2014

Evaluation of e-bike accidents in Switzerland.

Safety

Yang, H., Liu, X., Su, F., Cherry, C., Liu, Y., & Li, Yanlai

Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour

2018

Predicting e-bike users’ intention to run the red light.

User Conflict

Baechle, J. & Kressler, K.

Arizona Trail Association

2020

Perceptions of Conflict Surrounding Future E-bike Use on the Arizona Trail.

User Conflict

Bicycle Product Suppliers Association

Bicycle Product Suppliers Association

2017

PfB eMTB Bicycle Product Suppliers Association Intercept Study

User Conflict

Blahna, D.J., Smith, K.S., & Anderson, J.A.

Leisure Sciences

1995

Backcountry Llama Packing: Visitor Perceptions of Acceptability and Conflict.

User Conflict

Bureau of Land Management & International Mountain Bicycling Association

International Mountain Bicycling Association

2018

Guidelines for a Quality Trail Experience: Mountain Bike Trail Guidelines.

User Conflict

Chaney, R., Hall, P., Crowder, A., Crookston, B., & West, J.

Sport Sciences for Health

2019

Mountain biker attitudes and perceptions of eMTBs (electric‐mountain bikes).

User Conflict

Chaney, R.A., Hall, P.C., Crowder, A.R., Crookston, B.T., & West, J.H.

Sport Sciences for Health

2019

Mountain Biker Attitudes and Perceptions of e-MTBs.

User Conflict

Devall, B. & Harry, J.

Leisure Sciences

1981

Who Hates Whom in the Great Outdoors: The Impact of Recreational Specialization and Technologies of Play.

User Conflict

Hammit, W.E., McDonald, C.D., & Hughes, J.L.

Proceedings--National Wilderness Research Conference: Current Research USDA Forest Service General Technical Report

1986

Experience Level and Participation Motives of Winter Wilderness Users.

User Conflict

Hopkin, T.E. & Moore, R.L.

USDA

1994

The Relationship of Recreation Specialization to the Setting Preferences of Mountain Bicyclists.

User Conflict

Jacob, G. & Schreyer, R.

Journal of Leisure Research

1980

Conflict in Outdoor Recreation: A Theoretical Perspective.

User Conflict

Jefferson County Colorado Open Space

Jefferson County Colorado Open Space

2017

Summary of JCOS e-bike Study Findings to Date.

User Conflict

MacArthur, J., Harpool, M. Scheppke, D., & Cherry, C.

Transportation Research and Education Center

2018

North American Survey of Electric Bicycle Owners.

User Conflict

Manning, R.E.

Oregon State University Pres

1999

Recreation Conflict: Goal Interference,” in Studies in Outdoor Recreation: Search and Research for Satisfaction.

User Conflict

Mayer, A.

International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development

2019

Motivations and barriers to electric bike use in the U.S.: views from online forum participants.

User Conflict

Mcleod, K.

League of American Bicyclists

2015

Electric Bicycles: Public Perceptions & Policy. Results and Analysis of a National Survey of American Bicyclists.

User Conflict

Mcleod, K.

League of American Bicyclists

2015

Electric Bicycles: Public Perceptions & Policy. Results and Analysis of a National Survey of American Bicyclists.

User Conflict

Moore, R.L.

US Federal Highway Administration and the National Recreational Trails Advisory Committee

1994

Conflicts on Multi-Use Trails: Synthesis of the Literature and State of the Practice.

User Conflict

PeopleForBikes, Bicycle Product Suppliers Association, & Bureau of Land Management

PeopleForBikes, Bicycle Product Suppliers Association, & Bureau of Land Management

2017

eMTB Land Manager Handbook.

User Conflict

Plazier, P., Weitkamp, G., & van der Berg, A.

Journal of Transport Geography

2017

“Cycling was never so easy!”. An analysis of e-bike commuters’ motives, travel behaviour and experience using GPS-tracking and interview.

User Conflict

Watson, A., Williams, D., & Daigle, J.

Journal of Park and Recreation Administration

1991

“Sources of Conflict between Hikers and Mountain Bike Riders in the Rattlesnake NRA."

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This is an interactive version of the NPS study. We have copied the text of the study verbatim on this page under Section 105 of the U.S. Copyright Act. The text and conclusions of the study are those of the NPS. 

Krista Sherwood (Conservation & Outdoor Recreation Division) and Wayne Emington (Park Facility Management Division) are the points of contact for this outstanding literature review. The NPS is not affiliated or associated with E-bike Lovers. 

Download the NPS study here.

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